Purple coneflower, also known as echinacea, is derived from the Greek word for the hedgehog and is a popular herb in the U.S. and other countries. Its center spiny cone-like shape has inspired the name. The plant belongs to the Compositae family, which also includes other daisy-like plants, chicory, and dandelions.
The medicinal uses of Purple coneflower have long been known to native Americans, you can use it as a tea, tincture, or tincture. Its antioxidant properties help to combat the effects of oxidative stress, a factor in heart disease and diabetes. The plant’s medicinal properties have remained the same for centuries. Echinacea has been shown to boost resistance to bacterial and viral infections by stimulating the body’s immune system. It acts as an antibiotic and is used to relieve allergy symptoms and treat skin infections. This paper introduces the pharmacological activity and application of echinacea here today.
Wounds, ulceration and other skin diseases
In the past, the Native Americans used it for many purposes, including the treatment of snake bites as a smoke treatment for headaches, and to soothe sore gums. They also made tea with the flower to treat colds, mumps, arthritis, venereal diseases, and tumors. However, it has been shown to be ineffective in the treatment of these diseases. While more research is needed, the benefits of purple coneflower have already been proven.
Today it has been used for the treatment of wounds, ulceration, and other skin diseases. Echinacea active ingredients produced by Rainbow Biotech can promote the inhibition of hyaluronidase, promote the secretion of adrenal corticosteroids. It is used to treat saddle sores of horses in American folk, its liquor and decoction are used to treat venereal disease (gonorrhea, syphilis, etc.), but also can be used to treat a variety of bacterial infections (sore, scabies, carbuncle, etc.), insect and snake bite, eczema, typhoid fever, diphtheria, tuberculosis, and other diseases. Because echinacea can scavenge free radicals and protect skin collagen from free radical damage, its extracts or preparations can be used to prevent and treat skin light damage caused by ultraviolet radiation.
Enhance the immune system
The plant is highly flammable, which stimulates the immune system and promotes healing. It contains biochemical tissue salts, which have a positive impact on the immune system. The seeds, seed heads, and roots are chewed for toothache relief.
Polysaccharides: Experimental studies showed that echinacea macromolecule polysaccharides (MR5000-50000) isoxylan and arabinose have immune stimulation effects. It stimulates the proliferation of monocytes and the activity of macrophages, which release tumor necrosis factor -α(TNF-A), interleukin (IL-1, IL-6), and interferon β-2(IFNβ-2). (TNF-α is antiviral and induces resistance to infection by different DNA and RNA viruses, such as herpes simplex virus and vesicular stomatitis virus; Il-1, IL-2, and TNF-α have positive effects on recovery of infection and activation of CD4+T cells.) Echinacea low molecular polysaccharide also has weak anti-hyaluronidase activity.
Alkyl amide compounds: Alkyl amide compounds of echinacea have immunomodulatory effects, but also have the use of anti-upper respiratory tract infection. The results showed that the alkyl amide in echinacea can inhibit the activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cycgoxygenase and increase the number of NK cells.
Caffeic acid compounds: the ethanol extract of Echinacea can promote the phagocytic function of granulocytes, and the phagocytic function index increases obviously. Echinacea can induce human peripheral blood macrophages to produce cytokines in vitro and has the ability to inhibit HIV.
In general, echinacea enhances non-specific T cell activity, produces interferon, promotes lymphocyte secretion, and reduces T- helper
Cells and decrease the ratio of T- helper cells to inhibitory factors. The immunomodulatory mechanism induced by it is accomplished by stimulating the non-specific immune system, which can stimulate the activity of macrophages, increase the number of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α produced by macrophages, and improve the natural killer cell function of human peripheral blood monocytes.
Anti-inflammatory properties and antibacterial properties
Echinacea is a traditional anti-inflammatory drug in North America and Europe. Its active components, polysaccharide, and caffeic acid have weak antibacterial activity. The mice infected with N. Albicans were treated with echinacea polysaccharides, and the number of n. albicans in the kidney of the mice decreased significantly 24 hours later. The experiment showed that echinacea polysaccharides could resist n. albicans infection and the survival rate of the mice infected with n. Albicans could be increased by polysaccharides to 100% in the isolation test. In addition, echinacea roots and aboveground parts contain unsaturated isobutyl amide, immune regulatory function. It can prevent inflammation caused by pathogens, which has strong anti-inflammatory activity, can be used for bacterial infection.
The active ingredient in echinacea inhibits influenza and herpes viruses. It can inhibit the activity of hyaluronidase and thus block the viral receptor on the bacterial surface. Vsv-infection test showed that the polysaccharide part of echinacea has a weak interferon-like effect, which can inhibit the growth of virus and is used for rabies and snake venom.
Studies have shown that echinacea can affect the function of alveolar macrophages, especially promoting the production of NO and TNF-α in macrophages, and alveolar macrophages destroy infectious agents by releasing NO. With the increase of chicory acid, polysaccharide, and alkylamine concentration, the release of NO from alveolar macrophages increased in mice taking echinacea extract orally. Echinacea extract also induces the production of TNF-α in alveolar macrophages, which is associated with antiviral activity and may prevent and treat the common cold.
Echinacea’s medicinal uses include reducing blood sugar levels and promoting antioxidant activity. It can inhibit the activity of hyaluronidase, stimulate the growth of fibroblasts and the synthesis of glucosamine, produce corticosterone effect, promote the secretion of adrenal corticosteroids, so as to promote tissue renewal and wound healing.
The polyphenolic compounds (echinacosides, chlorogenic acid, chiceroic acid, archaic acid, and caffeic acid) contained in echinacosides have antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability in the body by scavenging reactive oxygen species and C-, N-, S- centered secondary free radicals. And the collagen that protects skin from free radical damage. All of these ingredients also inhibit free radical production, lipid oxidation, inflammatory development, and the degradation of type iii collagen caused by free radicals. The plant’s oil is high in antioxidants and is a great herbal remedy.
In short, aside from its medicinal properties, the plant’s versatility as a cut flower is not well-known. It is also a common ingredient in teas, which are used to treat sore throats and toothaches. The root and seed heads can be eaten to ease toothache, but the plant is also used in herbal medicines for treating sore throats and toothache. Its medicinal uses include reducing blood sugar levels, have also been widely used for its calming effects on the digestive system. Purple Echinacea is an excellent medicinal plant and is used for a variety of conditions, including respiratory problems. It can be used as a dietary supplement as a tincture, as well as for its medicinal properties. If you’re looking for a natural remedy, consider purple coneflower. It is a nutrient-rich plant that is also beneficial to livestock and native animals.