L-carnitine, also known as levocarnitine, is a naturally occurring amino acid structure that the body produces. People can also get it from their diet or take it in the form of an oral supplement. L-carnitine plays a critical role in energy production, as it converts fat into energy.
L-Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants, and some bacteria. In support of energy metabolism, carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria to be oxidized for energy production, and also participates in removing products of metabolism from cells.
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Given its key metabolic roles, carnitine is concentrated in tissues like skeletal and cardiac muscle that metabolize fatty acids as an energy source. Healthy individuals, including strict vegetarians, synthesize enough L-carnitine in vivo to not require supplementation.
Carnitine exists as one of two stereoisomers (the two enantiomers d-carnitine (S-(+)-) and l-carnitine (R-(-)-)). Both are biologically active, but only l-carnitine naturally occurs in animals, and d-carnitine is toxic as it inhibits the activity of the l-form. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Derived from amino acids, carnitine was first extracted from meat extracts in 1905, leading to its name from Latin, "caro/carnis" or flesh.
L-carnitine is a chemical similar to an amino acid that is produced in the body. L-carnitine helps the body turn fat into energy. The body can convert L-carnitine to other chemicals called acetyl-L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine. But, no one knows whether the benefits of these other carnitines are the same.
L-carnitine is a type of carnitine, which is a derivative of amino acids. Amino acids combine to make proteins, which carry out many essential tasks in the body. Carnitine helps the body break down fatty acids and turn them into energy to power the cells.
L-carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient, meaning that the body can generally make enough of it, but, in some cases, a person may have to get the compound from food or oral supplements if they cannot make enough.
In the body, the liver and kidneys create L-carnitine from the amino acids lysine and methionine. The kidneys can also store L-carnitine for later use and eliminate the excess through the urine stream.
- L-carnitine is taken by mouth to increase L-carnitine levels in people whose natural level of L-carnitine is too low.
- L-Carnitine is best known for its involvement in the mitochondrial oxidation of long-chain fatty acids.
It seems to have high utility in liver diseases where it reduces ammonia levels, the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy, and various markers of poor liver function. An improvement in sperm quality has been found with the supplementation of high doses, and improvements in male fertility have been noted in a small number of studies.
It seems to have minor beneficial effects on blood pressure, blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Overall, it seems useful in metabolic syndrome but not a first choice.
- Infant food: it can be added to milk powder to improve nutrition.
- Weight loss: L-carnitine can burn the redundant adipose in our body, then transmit to energy, which can help us lose weight.
- Athletes food: it is good for improve the explosive force and resist fatigue, which can enhance our sports ability.
- Important nutritional supplements for the human body: with the growth of our age, the content of L-carnitine in our body is decreasing, so we should supplement L-carnitine to maintain the health of our body.
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