Vitamin C

Manufacturer and supplier of ingredients for Vitamin C products, offering high-quality raw materials for cosmetics and personal care products.

Ask for a Quote

Vitamin C and its derivatives in cosmetics and skincare products

Vitamin C and its derivatives have been proven to possess antioxidant properties, neutralize free radicals, and effectively combat skin aging. They can also lighten existing wrinkles and provide enhanced protection against UV rays.

Vitamin C is a widely used ingredient in cosmeceuticals and a natural antioxidant that helps prevent and mitigate sun damage to the skin. It's important to note that while most plants and animals can synthesize vitamin C internally, the human body cannot produce it and relies on external food sources. Oral intake of vitamin C has a limited impact on increasing its concentration in the skin. Therefore, topical skincare products containing vitamin C offer the best way to supplement the skin with this essential nutrient.

In skincare formulations, there are various types of vitamin C available, including natural and chemically synthesized forms. You can explore the similarities and differences between different variants of vitamin C and their derivatives in skincare products through this directory. If you find any ingredients you need in the directory, feel free to email us.

Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate

Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate We Supply Vitamin C Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate (ATIP) Powder, 183476-82-6, C70H128O10, Purity ≧99%. Product Details Product ... Read more

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate We Supply Vitamin C Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate (THDA) Powder, 183476-82-6, C70H128O10, Purity ≧99%. Product Details Product ... Read more

Ascorbic Acid 2-Glucoside

Ascorbic Acid 2-Glucoside We Supply Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid 2-Glucoside (AA2G) Powder, 129499-78-1, C12H18O11, Purity ≧99%. Product ... Read more

Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate

Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate We Supply Vitamin C Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) Powder, 113170-55-1, C6H7O9P·Mg, Purity ≧99%. Product ... Read more

Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate

Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate We Supply Vitamin C Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP) Powder, 66170-10-3, C6H6Na3O9P, Purity ≧99%. Product ... Read more

Ascorbyl Stearate

Ascorbyl Stearate We Supply Vitamin C Ascorbyl Stearate Powder, 10605-09-1, C24H42O7, Purity ≧99%. Product Details Product Name ... Read more

Review of vitamin C and derivatives

Vitamin C is a widely recognized antioxidant for the skin. However, unlike other animals, humans lack the enzyme (L-gluconogamma lactone oxidase) required to produce vitamin C internally, making it necessary to obtain it from external sources.

The active form of vitamin C, L ascorbic acid, is responsible for its biological effects. Alongside retinoids, vitamin C is one of the most extensively studied skincare ingredients. Ascorbic acid offers numerous benefits, including the prevention of photodamage caused by UVA and UVB radiation. It also stimulates collagen production by acting as a co-factor for enzymes involved in collagen synthesis. Additionally, vitamin C acts as a powerful skin lightener by inhibiting tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanin production.

However, vitamin C is highly unstable and prone to oxidation when exposed to light, heat, pH changes, or other ions. To address this issue, various vitamin C derivatives have been developed to enhance stability while maintaining efficacy. Nevertheless, formulating stable and effective vitamin C products remains a challenge. The assessment of ingredient effectiveness requires not only laboratory and animal studies but also evaluation of human skin. Unfortunately, there is a limited amount of data available on skincare ingredients in general, especially when compared to medical dermatology. Moreover, some publications present conflicting findings, with one study demonstrating the benefits of a derivative while another shows no efficacy. This highlights the inherent challenges involved in manufacturing L ascorbic acid, as the formulation plays a crucial role.

L-ascorbic acid

Active form of vitamin C (AA). The most studied form of vitamin C in literature.Hydrophilic molecule.

Optimal formulation:

  • pH: 3.5 or lower
  • Concentration: 15%. The optimal range is 10-20%; greater than 20% did not increase levels in skin.
  • When 15% vitamin C concentration is applied to the skin, it saturates the skin within 3 days and decreases by 50% in 4 days. Once absorbed into the skin, it cannot be washed off.
  • When combined with 1% vitamin E and 0.5% ferulic acid, the stability and antioxidant effects of vitamin C increase by 8-fold.

Skinceuticals CE Ferulic serum has the highest number of published studies among all vitamin C serums. Skinceuticals holds a patent (U.S. Patent No. 7,179,841) for this specific formulation. Since then, many other similar products have emerged on the market, but they do not contain the exact formulation and often lack clinical studies.

Sodium ascorbyl phosphate and Magnesium ascorbyl phosphate

Salt forms for L-ascorbic acid. Thus, effectiveness depends on the skin conversion of SAP/MAP to AA.

Optimal formulation:

  • pH: 7
  • MAP has better stability in emulsion vehicles.

Studies on the efficacy of these molecules have yielded mixed results. Some studies indicate potential issues with their absorption through the skin, while others, both in vivo and in vitro, show beneficial effects.

Given that these molecules have a charge, formulating them at a neutral pH is crucial to enhance their penetration into the skin.

Ascorbyl glucoside (AA-2G)

The glucose (sugar) group was modified on AA to protect against photodegradation. AA-2G is converted to AA by skin enzyme α-glucosidase, giving a more sustained release of vitamin C on the skin. Further, it's less irritating than AA.

Optimal formulation:

  • pH: 6.4
  • Emulsion vehicle

AA-2G is 50% less potent than AA (ascorbic acid) as an antioxidant. However, it exhibits comparable properties in stimulating collagen production and inhibiting the enzyme tyrosinase.

3-O-ethyl ascorbic acid (3OAA)

This ethylated vitamin derivative is commonly used in Asian skincare for its brightening benefits. It provides stability across different temperatures.

Optimal formulation:

  • pH: 5.46

Like AA-2G, it is less effective compared to AA (ascorbic acid). While it shows promise as an antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor, there is limited research on its impact on neocollagenesis (formation of new collagen).

Ascorbyl palmitate

This is a lipophilic ester form of AA (ascorbic acid). Unfortunately, its stability is similar to AA, making it one of the least stable vitamin C derivatives. However, its lipophilic nature allows for better skin penetration.

Optimal formulation:

  • pH: Neutral
  • Variable depending on carrier system
  • Gel cream may be the best vehicle

It has shown antioxidant and anti-aging benefits. However, similar to MAP/SAP, there are concerns about its conversion to AA within the skin. Moreover, one study suggests that when exposed to UVB, ascorbyl palmitate may enhance lipid oxidation, potentially causing more oxidative damage to the skin.

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate

This is a lipid-soluble and stable form of pro-vitamin C that undergoes enzymatic conversion to AA (ascorbic acid) in the skin. It exhibits superior skin penetration (4 times more than MAP) and can reach the dermis, an area where AA cannot penetrate due to its hydrophilic nature. Initial studies suggest it may have greater potency than AA and cause less irritation, although further research is needed.

Optimal formulation:

  • pH: 5.5-6.5

Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate (ATIP)

ATIP (Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate) is another lipid-soluble form of vitamin C, similar to tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate, but with a slightly different chemical structure. In vitro studies have demonstrated a conversion rate to AA (ascorbic acid) of 84%. It boasts excellent stability, allowing for a longer shelf life of 6-12 months.

Optimal formulation:

  • pH: 5.5-6.5