These are some common ingredients recently added. I believe most girls should pay attention to some common moisturizing, whitening, anti-oxidation, and sun protection!
- Moisturizing ingredients
- Whitening ingredients
- Antioxidant ingredients
- sunscreen ingredients
- facial cleanser surfactant
Regarding the main ingredients contained in a skincare product: functional ingredient A, absorption-promoting ingredient B that introduces functional ingredients, neutralizing A and B, irritating ingredients C, and D that may increase the comfort of use, and ABC Protected E.
【Hyaluronic Acid】 [The most common moisturizing and hydrating ingredient]
Hyaluronic acid is currently a well-known darling in the beauty industry. It is not only used as a high-efficiency moisturizer in skincare products, but also popular with doctors and consumers because hyaluronic acid can smooth wrinkles, plump lips, modify cheeks, and enhance rhinoplasty. . But our understanding of hyaluronic acid is not very clear, so take this opportunity to learn about it, I believe it will be helpful to everyone’s maintenance and beauty. Hyaluronic acid is a natural gelatinous substance that has been abundant in our bodies since we were born. It exists in connective tissue and has the effect of lubricating joints; it also exists in the collagen fibrous tissue of the dermis, which can help store water and increase skin volume. It makes the skin plump and moisturized, especially it plays an extremely important role in maintaining the elasticity and health of collagen fibers in the skin. In addition, after the skin is damaged, one of the factors related to its rapid recovery is cell mitosis. This self-repair function is also affected by hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid can improve and maintain the moisture of cells more than any other natural substance. Young skin is rich in hyaluronic acid, so it is soft, smooth, and elastic. However, hyaluronic acid will be lost with age, usually starting from 18 to 20 years old, but it becomes obvious after 40 years old. When the skin’s moisture decreases, it loses elasticity and luster, dryness, wrinkles, and aging will appear over time. Therefore, we have learned that the reason why hyaluronic acid can slow down the aging process is: it keeps cells hydrated, lubricates joints, and makes skin smooth and elastic. This is the secret of youthfulness both inside and outside of the body.
Sorbitol is found in several fruits and cereals, such as peaches, pears, plums, apples, and corn. It is rich in high-efficiency moisturizing factors and is a natural hydrophilic formula that can maintain excellent moisturizing effects for a long time and establish isolation protection The film makes the skin transparent, soft, and shiny and helps the absorption of other nutrients, so it is a very common moisturizer in skincare products. It is also used in toothpaste to make them taste better and have a more special effect to achieve the effects of cleaning, mothproofing, strengthening periodontal tissue, whitening, calming, and desensitization. In addition, it is also used as a “sugar substitute.” Some sugar-free chewing gums with a sweet taste or diabetics use sorbitol instead of general sugar.
Also known as propylene glycol, it is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid. It is syrupy at room temperature and completely soluble in water. It is suitable for human use in small doses. The US “Food and Drug Administration (FDA)” Propylene glycol is recognized as a safe additive within an appropriate dose and can be used in medicines, cosmetics, and food. We often see this ingredient as a moisturizer in lotions, lotions, and creams in beauty products, but excessive use can cause contact dermatitis, liver disease, kidney damage, nervous system damage, and hair loss. Propylene glycol also has isolation and sealing effect, so in addition to moisturizing and antiseptic function.
【Natural Moisturizing Factor (PCA-Na)】
The skin itself is rich in PCA-Na. PCA-Na is made from one of the natural amino acids-amino acetic acids and plays the role of “Natural Moisturizing Factor” in the skin. Because PCA-N has a highly hygroscopic function, it can absorb moisture from the air, so it can strengthen the skin’s softness, moisturizing, and elasticity. If the PCA-Na content in the stratum corneum is reduced, the skin will become dry and rough. It is safe to use this moisturizer, but because it is an amino acid, it is prone to deterioration, so it requires technology in manufacturing and storage.
The skin itself originally has natural moisturizing factors: urea, lactic acid, and amino acids. Among them, the most moisturizing effect is urea. It is colorless and odorless. ) Important role. But when the skin is dry or in a certain state, such as urticaria, dermatitis, the urea content in the skin will inevitably decrease, and the more severe the symptoms, the less urea. With the decrease of urea, the water retention capacity of the skin also decreases, causing symptoms of dryness, roughness, tightness, dandruff or itching. Therefore, urea is commonly used in skincare products to relieve dry skin and keratosis. For dry keratinized skin, urea can change the structure of the stratum corneum, thereby improving the texture of the skin. Many hand creams contain urea. In clinical practice, urea is also combined with lactic acid to increase the water content of keratinocytes, solve the problem of rough keratinization, and restore the softness and smoothness of the epidermis. It is often used for rich hands and fat-deficient skin. Inflammation maintenance.
Glycerin (scientific name glycerol) is a neutral, slightly sweet, colorless, odorless, transparent, thick, syrupy viscous liquid, soluble in water and alcohol, but insoluble in oil. On the other hand, many things are easier to dissolve in glycerin than in water and alcohol, so glycerin is a good solvent. Commonly known as foreign honey, it is made by decomposing oil, fat, and molasses. All glycerin used in skincare products is specially treated to evenly spread the water contained in the skincare products on the skin, so that the skin can achieve a moisturizing effect. However, if the skin is damaged, it is not advisable to rub glycerin to avoid irritating the skin and affecting the healing of the wound. Glycerin is the best skin softener. It is an important ingredient in the manufacture of skin oils, creams, and facial cosmetics. It is also contained in lotions and lipsticks. It has excellent moisture absorption, so it can help maintain moisture and spread evenly. On the surface of the skin (cosmetic grade glycerin).
Kojic acid is a colorless, odorless, safe, and effective tyrosinase inhibitor. So as to inhibit melanin. It is a weak acid compound produced by certain strains of the genus Aspergillus using raw materials such as glucose, fructose, sorbose, and sugar alcohol to produce oxygen-consuming fermentation. The whitening mechanism of kojic acid is to chelate with the indispensable copper ion of tyrosinase to make it inactive and inhibit the interconversion of dopa pigment to DHICA, thereby blocking the synthesis of melanin and achieving the whitening effect. Kojic acid is widely used in Asia, with a concentration of 1% to 4%. Kojic acid combined with topical corticosteroids can reduce skin irritation. Skin whitening products containing kojic acid should be used twice a day for one month.
Azelaic acid, also called azalea, is naturally produced by the yeast Bacillus spp which causes tinea versicolor. Azelaic acid has been widely used by dermatologists and is considered a skin drug, but in Europe, Azelaic acid is not used as a medicine but used as a raw material in skin cosmetics to treat common acne (acne) and pigmentation disorders. (Such as melasma, small moles, melanoma, and other pigmentation caused by physical and phototoxic reasons). Advantages and disadvantages of azelaic acid can inhibit the production and action of active oxygen groups. This result is beneficial to the anti-inflammatory and various therapeutic effects of the drug. Azelaic acid is safe, non-toxic, and non-teratogenic. Azelaic acid reduces hair follicle hyperkeratosis by reducing the synthesis of filamentous keratin and has better skin permeability. Adding azelaic acid to cream cosmetics can increase skin absorption.
Vitamin C is high in citrus, pomegranate, papaya, strawberry, and other fruits. The latest discovery of vitamin C in acerola cherries is as high as 1215~3024mg/100g, which is an excellent source of natural vitamins. The advantages of vitamin C are Strong reducing agent has a very important and extensive role. In particular, it can scavenge active oxygen free radicals and promote the production of antibodies in the body. It plays a very important nutritional health and beauty effect in human body whitening and anti-aging.
AHA is also known as alpha-hydroxy acid. AHA can speed up cell renewal and remove unhealthy and abnormal epidermal cells (exfoliation)-this is where hyperpigmented skin cells accumulate to improve the appearance and function of the skin. The complexion is improved overall. Studies have also found that in addition to the exfoliating effect of glycolic acid such as lactic acid, it can also inhibit the synthesis of melanin. Here is a brief introduction to common alpha-hydroxy acids: lactic acid and glycolic acid. Among the commonly used fruit acids, lactic acid is the most commonly used fruit acid (AHA), and it has been studied the most. It has a small molecular weight and can penetrate deeper layers of the skin. Generally speaking, fruit acids with a concentration of 4% to 15% are not enough to inhibit the synthesis of melanin, so there is no whitening effect. However, Japanese researchers have discovered that lactic acid is neutralized into lactate and has a good whitening effect. Fruit acid whitening products were very popular in the 1990s. Major companies have their own mature fruit acid whitening products. L’Oréal and Unilever have deep research and application in the field of fruit acid whitening. Glycolic acid, a commonly used fruit acid, is a hydroxy acid derived from sugar cane. At low concentrations, glycolic acid can quickly exfoliate colored keratinocytes. At high concentrations, glycolic acid releases the epidermis. When using glycolic acid peeling to remove the epidermal layer of the skin, the concentration of 30% to 70% can enhance the transdermal effect of other skin whitening agents such as hydroquinone. Adding glycolic acid to hydroquinone preparations will produce synergistic effects.
Hydroquinone is an antioxidant. It mainly inhibits tyrosinase activity through complexation, regulates the metabolic process of melanocytes, and significantly reduces the number of dopa-positive melanocytes in the epidermis, resulting in reversible skin fading. It can be said that hydroquinone is still the best and most effective ingredient that directly acts on whitening. It is safe to treat melanoma and hyperpigmentation after inflammation. However, things are always two-sided. While good whitening effects can be achieved, the irritation of hydroquinone has always been the reason for limiting its application. The most common adverse reactions caused by hydroquinone are skin irritation and contact dermatitis. A rare side effect is exogenous brown-yellow disease, which is a kind of black hyperpigmentation that is extremely difficult to cure. In addition, hydroquinone is also classified as a potentially carcinogenic substance. Therefore, in recent years, fewer and fewer countries and regions use hydroquinone as a whitening ingredient. The European Union banned the addition of hydroquinone in cosmetics on January 2, 2002. my country’s 2007 version of the cosmetics hygiene regulations have included it in skincare products. Of prohibited substances. It can only be used in prescription drugs, that is, only a dermatologist can use hydroquinone.
Ferulic acid is widely found in plants in nature, and its chemical name is 4-hydroxy-methoxycinnamic acid, which is a phenolic acid commonly found in plants. Because ferulic acid is mostly extracted from Angelica sinensis, and many Chinese medicines such as Chuanxiong, Equisetum, and Cimicifuga contain ferulic acid, they are all derivatives of cinnamic acid. Of course, ferulic acid rarely exists in a free state in plants. It mainly exists in plants in combination with oligosaccharides, polyamines, lipids, and polysaccharides. Namely, sodium ferulic acid and ferulic acid ester, these two derivatives basically embody and maintain the biological characteristics of ferulic acid.
Peptides are formed by linking amino acids with peptide chains. The number of amino acids contained in them ranges from two to nine, but each peptide can be composed of many different amino acids. Two amino acids are called dipeptides, three amino acids are tripeptides, and so on. The three peptides, five peptides, and even nine peptides that are often heard are all oligopeptides. Each oligopeptide chain has a different effect. But the shorter the chain, the higher the end. Therefore, many medical practitioners say that it is unimaginable that eight peptides can be used in skincare products. Because this is basically the level of medical cosmetic surgery applications. The five peptides can stimulate the production of collagen in the dermis to achieve the anti-wrinkle effect and restore the elasticity and plumpness of the skin. The mechanism of hexapeptide is not to stimulate collagen, but is similar to botulinum, which organizes nerve conduction to relax muscles and achieve wrinkle-removing effects, which is even more powerful.
Vitamin A retinol’s mechanism of action is to reduce the accumulation of fat in skin tissues and make the skin structure younger. Among all anti-cellulite products, products with retinol should be the first choice. However, most related products contain very little retinol, and retinol is easily decomposed in the air, but the packaging of most products cannot ensure the stability of retinol.
It is also called a molecular nail. Because ceramide accounts for about 30-40% of the intercellular lipid of the stratum corneum, its proportion is quite high. At present, it has been found that atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, scaly and dry skin have reduced ceramide and nerves. Amide can affect cell growth, differentiation, aging, and apoptosis. Studies have found that it can affect the growth of melanocytes and the formation of melanin, so this ingredient also has the potential to be used as a whitening ingredient.
Ultraviolet rays can cause wrinkles, spots, dry skin, weakened immunity, and skin cancer. These causal relationships have been determined. Ultraviolet rays are divided into UVA, UVB, and UVC. UVC will be filtered by the atmosphere, but now the atmosphere itself is not sound. UVA will go directly to the surface of the earth. It will darken the skin and generate other free radicals. These all happen slowly, so it is difficult for us to detect them. UVB will be partially filtered. As long as a small amount of UVB will quickly cause skin damage because UVB will directly cause cell deformities. Fortunately, it is very small. The mainstream sunscreen ingredients are [Titanium Dioxide] and [Zinc Oxide], both of which are stable minerals and will not cause allergies. Now the most advanced technology is nanotechnology, which makes the particles of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide smaller so that it feels better.
Cleansing product surfactants
- Sodium lauryl sulfate
This is a surfactant with strong degreasing power. It is the most commonly used cleansing ingredient that emphasizes oily skin or a facial cleanser for men. The disadvantage is that it is potentially irritating to the skin. Compared with other surfactants, it is more irritating. For more than ten years, there have been relevant research reports pointing out the fact that sodium lauryl sulfate is irritating to the skin. Because of the strong degreasing power, the excessive removal of the sebum film naturally produced by the skin will reduce the skin’s own defense capabilities in the long run, causing dermatitis, skin aging and other phenomena. Therefore, if you really want to choose this type of product, I only recommend it to people with healthy skin and oily skin. For those with allergic and sensitive skin, do not use this type of product.
- Polyoxyethylene alkyl sodium sulfate
It is also a surfactant with good fat-removing power. Its irritation to the skin and eye mucosa is slightly less than that of sodium lauryl sulfate. The so-called ocular mucosal irritation refers to the phenomenon of irritation in the eye when it gets wet. Of course, not all surfactants can cause ocular mucosal irritation. This type of cleanser is widely used. In addition to facial cleansing products, it is also widely used in the formulation of body wash and shampoo. The reason why it is widely used by manufacturers is its good cleaning power and low price of raw materials. Facial cleansers with sodium lauryl sulfate or sodium polyoxyethylene alkyl sulfate as the main cleansing ingredients usually need to be formulated into a slightly alkaline formula in order to fully exert the cleansing ability. If it is added to the product with fruit acid, the effect of fruit acid will be greatly reduced because it cannot be adjusted to an acidic solution. Therefore, it is not recommended to buy cleaning products with these two types of cleansing ingredients that claim to be combined with fruit acid. Readers may also want to know which sodium lauryl sulfate, polyoxyethylene alkyl sodium sulfate and saponified formula are more degreasing or more irritating? In terms of detergency, sodium lauryl sulfate and polyoxyethylene alkyl sodium sulfate are not inferior to the saponification formula. The irritation to the skin is not far off. However, in terms of the touch after washing, the saponified formula is better.
- Sodium acyl sulfonate
It has excellent cleansing power and has low skin irritation. In addition, it has excellent skin-friendliness, and it has a good touch during and after washing, and the skin will not be too dry and has a soft touch. When using this ingredient as the main facial cleanser formula, the pH is usually controlled between PH5-7, which is very suitable for normal skin use. Therefore, it is recommended for people with oily skin, or those who like to wash their face very dry and non-greasy, choose this type of ingredients, long-term use is more secure for the skin. Choosing this ingredient, long-term use is more secure for the skin.
Surfactants with moderate degreasing power are rarely used as the main cleaning ingredient. Although the degreasing power is not strong, it has excellent foaming power, so it is often used with other cleaning ingredients to adjust the foam. In addition to facial cleansers, it is more commonly used in foam shower gels and children’s shower gels, or used as a foam booster in cleansing ingredients with poor foaming properties. It has little irritation to the skin and eye mucous membrane, and it can be regarded as a mild cleansing ingredient for dry and allergic skin.
- Alkyl phosphate
It is a mild, moderately degreasing surfactant. For this kind of products, the acid and alkali must be adjusted in an alkaline environment in order to effectively exert the cleaning effect. It has good skin affinity, so it has a good touch during and after washing. However, long-term use is still not recommended for skin that is allergic to alkaline.
- Sodium acylsarcosinate
Moderate degreasing power, low irritation, good foaming power, mild chemical properties. It is rarely used as a cleaning ingredient alone, and is usually combined with other surfactant formulations. Except for the slightly weaker degreasing power, the composition characteristics are similar to sodium 3 acyl sulfonate.
- Alkyl polyglucoside
This surfactant is made from natural plants and does not have any toxicity or irritation to the skin and the environment. Moderate cleansing, it is a new popular low-sensitivity cleansing ingredient. At present, there is a kind of dishwashing liquid that uses alkyl polyglucoside, which is slightly more expensive, but used housewives may wish to compare it with other formulations of dishwashing liquid. You can definitely be sure of this type of surfactant from the feeling on your hands. It is mild and non-irritating. However, facial cleansers with alkyl polyglucoside as the main component are still rare.
- Amphoteric surfactant
Generally speaking, this type of cleansing ingredients have low irritation, good foaming properties, and medium degreasing power. Therefore, it is more suitable for dry skin or baby cleansing product formula. In the current cleaning market, baby shampoo is used the most. Used in facial cleansers, it is often used with surfactants with strong degreasing power.
- Amino acid surfactant
Amino acid surfactants are made from natural ingredients. The ingredients themselves can be adjusted to be weakly acidic, so they have little irritation to the skin and are particularly skin-friendly. It is currently the mainstream of the cleansing ingredients of advanced facial cleanser, and the price is relatively expensive. Long-term use, there is no need to worry about damage to the skin.
Anti-irritants are also an essential ingredient in skincare products. The irritation to the skin comes from the sun and various pollution of the surrounding environment. In addition, sunscreen, antiseptic, exfoliating, cleansing, fragrance, various plant extracts, and other ingredients in skincare products can also irritate the skin. In skincare products, the more anti-irritants, the better. Anti-irritants generally include these: chamomile extract, licorice root, allantoin, aloe vera, bisabolol, burdock, glycyrrhetinic acid, grape extract, green tea, VC, etc.
Antioxidants are used to reduce the damage of natural bases. Free radicals are one of the main causes of aging of the human body and skin.
What everyone thinks most about skincare product packaging is Coenzyme Q10, Grape Seed Extract, Green Tea, Superoxide Dismutase, Pomegranate Extract, Vitamin A|E|C, Pomegranate Extract. Intercellular signal transmission substances can make cells function normally and prevent cells from being abnormal due to the influence of other substances.
Damage to the skin means that skin cells have grown abnormally. This requires intercellular signal transmission substances to repair. Make the deformed cells healthy again. Intercellular signal transmission substances include nicotinamide, VA, peptides, and adenosine triphosphate.
The important role of collagen in the true cortex
The dermis of the skin accounts for 15-20% of the total weight of the human body. Its structure is network-like. The main components are polysaccharides and proteins. These fibrous proteins are composed of collagen and elastin. Our faces can be shaped. Protein also occupies an important position. From the perspective of the total dry weight of the dermis, collagen accounts for about 75%, so the main composition of the dermis is collagen. In addition to being responsible for support, collagen also has the function of retaining moisture in the dermis, so the skin shows a plump and shiny appearance, and collagen is indispensable.
Replenishment of collagen protein
In order to maintain beauty and health, collagen has been developed in several ways to supplement, such as smearing, eating, and injection. In terms of beauty, collagen is the latest moisturizer developed in recent years. Because it has a similar structure to the material that constitutes the stratum corneum of the skin, it can quickly penetrate into the skin and combine with water to form a network structure that locks in moisture. Its moisturizing principle is different from traditional moisturizers. Some people say that it has opened up a new world of moisturizing, but due to the high cost, only a small amount is added and it is not the main ingredient of moisturizing. In addition, it can enhance the firmness of the skin, maintain elasticity and smoothness, and can be said to have anti-aging effects.
In terms of health, many elderly people are prone to joint pain during exercise due to joint degeneration. Collagen can enhance joint lubrication, make joint movement more smoothly, and reduce joint pain. Collagen is also used to assist in the treatment of chronic diseases, enhance immunity, and reduce the chance of backaches. Because collagen has very good water retention and richness, it can also use these properties to make many biomedical materials, such as artificial skin, artificial bones, dentures, contact lenses, etc.