CAS number 56-75-7
Mol. mass 323.132 g/mol
Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antimicrobial originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. It was the first antibiotic to be manufactured synthetically on a large scale, and alongside the tetracyclines, is considered the prototypical broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Chloramphenicol is effective against a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including most anaerobic organisms. Due to resistance and safety concerns, it is no longer a first-line agent for any indication in developed nations and has been replaced by newer drugs in this setting, although it is sometimes used topically for eye infections. In low-income countries, chloramphenicol is still widely used because it is exceedingly inexpensive and readily available.
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