Retinoids

Retinoids

Characteristics and Application :
The retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are related chemically to vitamin A. Retinoids are used in medicine, primarily due to the way they regulate epithelial cell growth. 
Retinoids have many important and diverse functions throughout the body including roles in vision, regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, growth of bone tissue, immune function, and activation of tumor suppressor genes.
Research is also being done into their ability to treat skin cancers. Currently 9-cis retinoic acid may be used topically to help treat skin lesions from Kaposi's sarcoma. 
Uses : 
Retinoids are used in the treatment of many diverse diseases and are effective in the treatment of a number of dermatological conditions such as inflammatory skin disorders, skin cancers, disorders of increased cell turnover (e.g. psoriasis), and photoaging.Common skin conditions treated by retinoids include acne and psoriasis.
Toxicity :
Toxic effects occur with prolonged high intake. The specific toxicity is related to exposure time and the exposure concentration. A medical sign of chronic poisoning is the presence of painful tender swellings on the long bones. Anorexia, skin lesions, hair loss, hepatosplenomegaly, papilloedema, bleeding, general malaise, pseudotumor cerebri, and death may also occur.
Chronic overdose also causes an increased liability of biological membranes and of the outer layer of the skin to peel.
Recent research[citation needed] has suggested a role for retinoids in cutaneous adverse effects for a variety of drugs including the Antimalarial drug proguanil. It is proposed that drugs such as proguanil act to disrupt retinoid homeostasis.

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